Category Archives: Internet

The Importance of Plaques as a Token of Gratitude

There was a time during a period I worked for a company and I receive an award for the excellent dedication I presented. I felt so appreciated and happy that all the hard works and commitment I gave to the job are recognized. It really makes you wonder how something small like plaque can give an extraordinary impact on someone who receives them. One may even argue that an award like that shouldn’t mean anything because, well, it’s just a thing, right? In all realness, though, an award is a token of gratitude a party presents to another, a reminder how meaningful a party’s presence in the life of another.

Now should you want to award anyone with a plaque, be it one of your employees or a family member how has just achieved some level of greatness in whatever they do, you couldn’t simply put that person’s name on a flat surface and call it that. You must put some efforts on the present. It must be a memorable piece of precious recognition. You can order some custom plaques if you can’t come up with an idea on your own.

With personalized plaques, the recipient will automatically be reminded of you every time he or she looks at that award. However, you need to consider how well the award plaques fare standing against the test of time. The material used in making the award must be able to exist for quite a long time. Why? The plaques you present them with are the proof of good work they perform. They will refer to that plaque every time they feel down. So, it would be a good idea if you choose to make or order some brass plaques. Plaques of this material last longer while are still lightweight enough that they won’t pose a nuisance.

Tips to oppose bill regulating proxy advisers

Council of Institutional Investors warns HR5311 would weaken governance in US public companies to the detriment of investors

Pension funds and other major institutional investors are fighting proposed legislation that they fear may severely restrict the ability of proxy advisers to fulfill their roles in the proxy voting process. The bill, HR5311, was introduced on May 24 and began the process of being amended by the House Committee on Financial Services on June 16.

If the bill, commonly known as the Corporate Governance Reform and Transparency Act of 2016, gets passed into law, it would require proxy advisory services to submit to a strict registration process with the SEC that would entail filing an application describing its methodologies for developing proxy voting recommendations, any potential or actual conflicts of interest related to the proxy adviser’s ownership structure and whether or not it has a code of ethics, as well as adequate financial and managerial resources to be able to consistently provide proxy advice based on accurate information. The bill would grant the SEC the authority to suspend or revoke a proxy adviser’s registration if the SEC decides this information hasn’t been provided to its satisfaction.

The proposed bill is the most recent expression of allegations that members of the US Chamber of Commerce and other business advocacy groups have made about the extent of influence proxy advisory firms may have on institutional investors voting their proxies. These allegations have escalated in recent years as investors have gained an advisory vote on companies’ executive compensation plans and as shareholder activism in general has grown.

In a letter of opposition sent to the House Committee, the Council of Institutional Investors (CII) voices concern that tighter regulation of proxy advisers would hurt investors and that ‘the bill could weaken public company corporate governance in the US, lessen the fiduciary obligation of proxy advisers to investor clients, and reorient any surviving proxy advisers to serve companies rather than investors.’

Timothy Smith, director of ESG shareholder engagement at Walden Asset Management in Boston, says his firm isn’t arguing that proxy advisory services don’t need some updating or checks and balances. ‘But if you read this bill, it [is clear it’s] hugely prescriptive, micromanaging to the extreme,’ he explains. ‘It would really block the work proxy advisory services are doing.’

The Society for Corporate Governance (formerly the Society of Corporate Secretaries and Governance Professionals) publicly supports HR5311, which has raised concern among some investment firms. In addition to sending its own letter to the House Committee on Financial Services, as numerous pension funds have done, Walden sent a letter to the society, thinking it important that it hear from investors that regularly engage with corporate secretaries.

Most corporate secretaries are well-enough informed about how the proxy process works to ‘know full well that ISS or Glass Lewis don’t commandeer the votes of their clients,’ Smith says. Walden’s appeal to the society is partly to make sure its leaders are aware ‘they’re working with folks [such as the Chamber of Commerce] who have a much larger campaign in mind’, which is to counter the efforts of major investors pushing to vote proxies not only on the basis of financial performance metrics but also on projected social and environmental impacts of business decisions, Smith explains.

The Society for Corporate Governance didn’t respond to a request for comments in time for inclusion in this article.

At the heart of the long-standing tension between issuers and proxy advisers is resentment among issuers that proxy advisers too often don’t agree with their executive pay plans and side with activist investors more often than with incumbent boards and management in proxy contests.

Francis Byrd, founder and CEO of Byrd Governance Advisory, believes proxy advisers ‘have been trying to respond to issuer concerns about actual mistakes and the need for corrections in their analysis.’ He also rejects the allegations of undue influence that proxy advisers have on voting results, citing increased efforts in recent years by investors to form their own governance teams and take proxy voting more seriously.

What is the US proxy season

unduhan-27Results from the first part of the 2016 proxy season and overall corporate governance trends continue to point to the need for proactive board-shareholder engagement,’ state the authors ofthe latest ProxyPulse report from Broadridge and PwC.

Summarizing the voting trends of 1,881 US public company meetings held between January 1, 2016 and May 15, 2016, the study finds that more than 30 shareholder proposals for proxy access – one of the hot governance topics carried over from 2015 – came to a vote during the first part of 2016.

‘Almost 70 percent of the companies targeted this year by the Boardroom Accountability Project reached agreement to adopt proxy access bylaws and avoid a shareholder vote,’ write the authors, while noting that more than half of the proxy access proposals of 2016 have failed to achieve majority support.

On another key issue, ProxyPulse finds that of the 1,085 say-on-pay proposals so far this season, ‘just over 3 percent failed to achieve majority shareholder support.’ At micro-cap companies, support dropped 10 percentage points, while at small caps there was a slight decrease in shareholder support, from 89 percent on average during the first part of 2015’s proxy season to 87 percent on average so far this year.

The final area examined in the mid-season report is director elections, with overall shareholder support falling from the same period last year: from January to May 2016, 151 directors at 64 different firms failed to achieve majority shareholder support – up from 126 directors for the same period last year.

Some companies appear to be failing to gain support in consecutive years. When it comes to director elections, ‘almost half of the companies that had at least one director fail to gain majority support last year also had a director fail this year.’

The same trend is seen in say on pay, where ‘43 percent of companies that failed to achieve the 70 percent support threshold in 2015 also failed to hit 70 percent this season,’ states the report.

Satis or Toran Proxy

Toran Proxy is a commercial alternative to Satis offering professional support as well as a web UI to manage everything and a better integration with Composer. It also provides proxying/mirroring for git repos and package zip files which makes installs faster and independent from third party systems.

Toran’s revenue is also used to pay for Composer and Packagist development and hosting so using it is a good way to support open source financially. You can find more information about how to set it up and use it on theToran Proxy website.


Satis on the other hand is open source but only a static composer repository generator. It is a bit like an ultra-lightweight, static file-based version of packagist and can be used to host the metadata of your company’s private packages, or your own. You can get it from GitHub or install via CLI: php composer.phar create-project composer/satis --stability=dev --keep-vcs.


For example let’s assume you have a few packages you want to reuse across your company but don’t really want to open-source. You would first define a Satis configuration: a json file with an arbitrary name that lists your curated repositories.

Here is an example configuration, you see that it holds a few VCS repositories, but those could be any types ofrepositories. Then it uses "require-all": true which selects all versions of all packages in the repositories you defined.

The default file Satis looks for is satis.json in the root of the repository.

    "name": "My Repository",
    "homepage": "",
    "repositories": [
        { "type": "vcs", "url": "" },
        { "type": "vcs", "url": "" },
        { "type": "vcs", "url": "" }
    "require-all": true

If you want to cherry pick which packages you want, you can list all the packages you want to have in your satis repository inside the classic composer require key, using a "*" constraint to make sure all versions are selected, or another constraint if you want really specific versions.

    "repositories": [
        { "type": "vcs", "url": "" },
        { "type": "vcs", "url": "" },
        { "type": "vcs", "url": "" }
    "require": {
        "company/package": "*",
        "company/package2": "*",
        "company/package3": "2.0.0"

Once you’ve done this, you just run php bin/satis build <configuration file> <build dir>. For example php bin/satis build satis.json web/ would read the satis.json file and build a static repository inside the web/ directory.

When you ironed out that process, what you would typically do is run this command as a cron job on a server. It would then update all your package info much like Packagist does.

Note that if your private packages are hosted on GitHub, your server should have an ssh key that gives it access to those packages, and then you should add the --no-interaction (or -n) flag to the command to make sure it falls back to ssh key authentication instead of prompting for a password. This is also a good trick for continuous integration servers.

Set up a virtual-host that points to that web/ directory, let’s say it is Alternatively, with PHP >= 5.4.0, you can use the built-in CLI server php -S localhost:port -t satis-output-dir/ for a temporary solution.

Partial Updates#

You can tell Satis to selectively update only particular packages or process only a repository with a given URL. This cuts down the time it takes to rebuild the package.json file and is helpful if you use (custom) webhooks to trigger rebuilds whenever code is pushed into one of your repositories.

To rebuild only particular packages, pass the package names on the command line like so:

php bin/satis build satis.json web/ this/package that/other-package

Note that this will still need to pull and scan all of your VCS repositories because any VCS repository might contain (on any branch) one of the selected packages.

How to take care the proxy

The facts of the case were undeniably tragic. Ms. Cruzan was in an automobile accident some seven-and-a half years ago. Since that time, she has been lying in a Missouri hospital in a “persistent vegetative state,” having lost her upper brain function, legally alive but permanently unconscious. However, Ms. Cruzan is not terminally ill; she could continue to live for many years in her vegetative state so long as she receives adequate nutrition and hydration. Ms. Cruzan’s parents asserted that their daughter would never wish to be maintained in such a state, and they asked the court to compel the hospital to “pull the plug” on Ms. Cruzan’s feeding tubes. By a vote of 5-4, however, the Supreme Court denied the parents’ request, and upheld the State of Missouri’s right to continue providing life-sustaining nutrition and hydration to Ms. Cruzan.[1]

Cruzan may have been the first case of its kind to reach the U.S. Supreme Court, but it is illustrative of the types of agonizing issues that arise so frequently in this era of rapid advances in medical technology. Those advances have enabled doctors to preserve and prolong many lives. At the same time, they have created a painful question that confronts countless individuals and their families: Are there any limits to the resources and efforts that should be devoted to the maintenance of a person whose quality of life is severely diminished, whose chances of recovery are slim or virtually nil, whose continued maintenance is exacting a severe economic and emotional cost? Where, if anywhere, is the line to be drawn?

The question is one that is faced not only by growing numbers of individuals and families, but also by society as a whole as it struggles to develop public policy in an area of extreme moral complexity.

Some in the “pro-life” community advocate an uncompromising public commitment to the preservation of human life under virtually all circumstances, no matter what the costs, no matter what the medical prognosis, no matter what the wishes of the family or even the individual patient. A growing number of others, in contrast, advocate the “right to die with dignity” — a policy that would allow patients and their families to decide, at least at some point, that the patient’s quality of life was so severely diminished as to justify the withholding or termination of medical life-support.

Although most proponents of the “right to die” position would hasten to disavow any support of suicide or of “euthanasia” (mercy killing), those concepts are inevitable outgrowths of the “right to die” philosophy and are already beginning to emerge from the shadows of the “death with dignity” movement. Laws have been proposed in a number of jurisdictions that would authorize physicians to assist patients who wish to commit suicide. One senses that stories like the one recently reported about Dr. Jack Kevorkian, a pro-euthanasia physician who had supplied a woman suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease with a “do-it-yourself” suicide kit, which she promptly used to take her life, will soon fail even to raise eyebrows among most people.

For yet others, dying is more than merely a matter of right; it rises to the level of an obligation. In 1984, for example, Colorado Governor Richard Lamm told a group of attorneys that terminally ill seniors have “a duty to die and get out of the way with all of our machines and artificial hearts and everything else like that and let the other society, our kids, build a reasonable life.” This attitude is reflected in health care rationing plans like the one recently developed in Oregon, which would deny Medicaid patients the right to receive certain types of medical services that are not deemed “cost-effective.” Thus, in determining whether any given life-sustaining measure makes medical sense, the key consideration is rapidly turning into one of dollars and cents.

With these developments taking place all around us, what is to be the attitude of the Torah community?

  • The Primacy of Halachah

Halachah, the law of Torah, encompasses every facet of human life. It also encompasses every facet of human death. There are halachos that teach us how a person’s remains are to be buried; under what circumstances, if any, a decedent’s body may be autopsied or dissected; whether it is permissible, or perhaps even a mitzvah, to donate body organs for purposes of transplantation into needy others.

So too does halachah govern the many issues that may arise in near-death situations: the types of medical circumstances, if any, that may justify the withholding or termination of various forms of medical care; the permissibility, or non-permissibility, of undergoing experimental treatment that could shorten life if it does not cure the disease; the extent, if any, to which an individual’s personal preferences with respect to medical care are relevant halachic considerations in determining the course of his treatment; the special laws that apply when a person reaches the stage of gesisah (in the throes of death), as well as the means by which gesisah is determined; the criteria by which to determine a person’s death.

Obviously, to state the self-evident axiom that halachah provides answers to all of these questions is by no means to state that there is always definitive halachic consensus as to what those answers are. Indeed, with respect to certain especially complex matters, the rabbinic responsa and other halachic literature reveal a considerable disparity among a number of contemporary poskim (halachic decisors). Moreover, the enormous technological and physiological complexity involved in many of these she’eilos(questions of Jewish law), as well as the high stakes, may result in a reluctance on the part of certain rabbanim to render halachic rulings in specific cases.

For the believing Jew, though, the bottom line is that the resolution of such issues must come through the halachic system, not through personal predilection as molded by contemporary culture. There are inevitably bound to be disparities between halachah and the mores of the time; the underlying philosophies are in fundamental conflict. As Rabbi J. David Bleich has written:

Man does not possess absolute title to his life or his body. He is charged with preserving, dignifying and hallowing that life. He is obliged to seek food and sustenance in order to safeguard the life he has been granted; when falling victim to illness or disease he is obliged to seek a cure in order to sustain life. The category of pikuach nefesh (preservation of life) extends to human life of every description and classification including the feeble-minded, the mentally deranged and yes, even a person in a so-called vegetative state. Shabbos laws and the like are suspended on behalf of such persons even though there maybe no chance for them ever to serve either G–d or fellow man. The mitzvah of saving a life is neither enhanced nor diminished by virtue of the quality of the life preserved.”[2]

Thus, “death with dignity,” the rallying cry of the modern day euthanasia movement, clearly does not find its roots in the law or values of Torah. Elderly persons who speak of their desire to die rather than become a financial or emotional “burden on the children” may have the most noble of intentions, but nobility of intention is not the yardstick by which Jews measure conformity with Hashem’s will. Those who champion only the quality of human life as the overriding value in health care decisions disregard the longstanding Jewish emphasis on the sanctity of human life, even in its most diminished qualitative form.

In sum, the complexity of the halachic issues, the diversity of views among rabbinic authorities with respect to certain she’eilos, the relative difficulty of finding rabbanimprepared to offer halachic guidance — none of these considerations detracts from the fundamental fact that for the Jew, the framework of analysis and decision on these issues must be the halachah.

  • Who Will Ask the Questions?
    Who Will Make the Decisions?

In ordinary circumstances, when a person has a she’eilah, he will pose it to the halachic authority whose guidance he personally accepts as binding — the Rav of his shul, hisrebbe, his rosh yeshivah, someone recognized as a halachic decisor for all of Klal Yisrael — whomever. Yet that is obviously impossible with respect to the many medical and post-mortem issues that may arise when the person about whom the she’eilah is being asked is incapable of posing the question himself.

One would hope that the she’eilah under those circumstances would be posed by those who will be making decisions on the individual’s behalf — in most cases, the members of his family — and that it would be posed to the very same halachic authority to whom the individual himself would have turned were he capable of doing so.

But not always can it be so. Some people do not have family members with whom they retain contact or upon whom they can rely to contact their morei hora’ah (halachic decisors) in times of emergency. And, even for those who do, not always will the she’eilos arise under circumstances where those family members will be available to contact the individual’s halachic authority. When, for example, a person is involved in an accident far from home, emergency decisions will be made for him by doctors and nurses who may not even know that he is Jewish, let alone who his relatives are or who his rabbi is. The likelihood is all too great in such situations that medical procedures will be performed, or withheld, in ways that constitute a violation of halachah.

The problem arises even more frequently in the context of post-mortem procedures. Many horror stories have come to light involving autopsies, post-mortem procedures and non-halachic burials of Jewish decedents who have passed away under circumstances where nobody was available to ensure that halachah would be followed after the person’s death.

Appoint successors

There has been a recent spate of complaints that boards and CEOs are not planning for CEO succession. Why is anyone surprised? Imperial CEOs assume the company will go to Hell in a handbasket as soon as they leave, and if CEOs need their maws stuffed with gold just to deliver good results, why would they care what happens once they have landed with their golden parachute?

Just how essential are a CEO’s talents for a corporation? Like the divine right of kings, the indispensability of the CEO seems deeply rooted – but rarely investigated – in IR lore. CEOs are surrounded with awe and pomp while in office but, with a few rare exceptions, in reality they are ephemeral shooting stars who are almost instantly forgotten when they go. Carly Fiorina’s inglorious executive career, for example, had been buried in the public subconscious until she chose to resurrect herself as a US presidential candidate, only to see her reputation reburied even more deeply.

By contrast, we are likely to remember the Fords and the Bacardis and members of the House of Windsor: these bosses’ names evoke historically successful businesses. Dynastic succession does not always work, however. Many years ago I interviewed the bright and optimistic IRO of Seagram – just before perky young heir Edgar Bronfman, Jr took over and destroyed the company. Normally, family members care enough about their operation to keep upstarts on a rein, but young Bronfman was unconstrained. A good CEO might not make much difference to the upside, but a bad one can signpost the road to Hell.

In fact, one reason for lack of succession planning might be that CEOs are taking the Ottoman approach. The first thing a new Sultan would do is murder all the siblings who might threaten his position, and one cannot help but wonder whether CEOs paranoid enough to need golden parachutes and other protective paraphernalia to guarantee safe succession really want to identify potential rivals – other than to exclude them from the equation.

A CEO is indeed a figurehead for a company: the first person investors see. But if we examine the metaphor, the figurehead only appears to be leading the ship. In reality the engine room is below decks, while the vessel is actually steered from much farther back. But figureheads were often decked with gold, so there is indeed a resemblance to the modern CEO.

How necessary is all that gold, though? Ostentatious emoluments – the corporate jets, the golden parachutes, and the rest – are there like Queen Elizabeth II’s privy purse, crown and state coach: so the incumbent can live up to the expectations that employees and shareholders hold of the company.

The purpose of pretending to try outside recruitment is to boost the myth that there is a market for CEOs, so that the compensation committee the CEO appoints will be trapped in the whirring treadmill, always paying more than the average, and the few who are appointed from outside contribute admirably to the expanding universe of executive pay by doubling their remuneration.

Above all, however, it is clear that a CEO’s main tasks are to perform for the shareholders and public, and to boost morale in the company. It is not that high pay is necessary to incentivize these executives, for surely they would give their all for the company anyway, out of loyalty? No.

Preferably, then, the CEO succession should be from within the company so the candidates know its idiosyncrasies. For the pool of CEO candidates, therefore, the line of succession should clearly come from the IR department. IR people need some coaching in the simulation of leadership – acting, voice coaching, deportment and similar skills – but no one can match their knowledge of corporate workings. At last, a figurehead that thinks!

Then again, CEOs should epitomize, not exclude themselves from efficient market theory, which suggests that CEO contracts, like all others should go to the best qualified – and lowest – bidder, which in turn reinforces using the IR department as the recruitment pool – because everyone knows that IROs come cheaper than all others.

What is the different of VPN and Proxy

images-15A proxy connects you to a remote computer and a VPN connects you to a remote computer so they must be, more or less, the same thing, right? Not exactly. Let’s look at when might you want to use each, and why proxies are a poor substitute for VPNs.

Selecting the Right Tool Is Critical

Practically every other week there’s a major news story about encryption, leaked data, snooping, or other digital privacy concerns. Many of these articles talk about the importance of beefing up the security of your Internet connection, like using a VPN (Virtual Private Network) when you’re on public coffee shop Wi-Fi, but they’re often light on the details. How exactly do the proxy servers and VPN connections we keep hearing about actually work? If you’re going to invest the time and energy in improving security you want to be sure you’re selecting the right tool for the right job.

Although they are fundamentally different, VPNs and proxies have a single thing in common: they both allow you to appear as if you are connecting to the internet from another location. How they accomplish this task and the degree to which they offer privacy, encryption, and other functions, however, varies wildly.

Proxies Hide Your IP Address

A proxy server is a server that acts as a middleman in the flow of your internet traffic, so that your internet activities appear to come from somewhere else. Let’s say for example you are physically located in New York City and you want to log into a website that is geographically restricted to only people located in the United Kingdom. You could connect to a proxy server located within the United Kingdom, then connect to that website. The traffic from your web browser would appear to originate from the remote computer and not your own.

Proxies are great for low-stakes tasks like watching region-restricted YouTube videos, bypassing simple content filters, or bypassing IP-based restrictions on services.

For example: Several people in our household play an online game where you get a daily in-game bonus for voting for the game server on a server ranking website. However, the ranking website has a one-vote-per-IP policy regardless of whether different player names are used. Thanks to proxy servers each person can log their vote and get the in-game bonus because each person’s web browser appears to be coming from a different IP address.

On the other side of things, proxy servers are not so great for high-stakes tasks. Proxy servers only hide your IP address and act as a dumb man-in-the-middle for your Internet traffic. They don’t encrypt your traffic between your computer and the proxy server, they don’t typically strip away identifying information from your transmissions beyond the simple IP swap, and there are no additional privacy or security considerations built in.

Anyone with access to the stream of data (your ISP, your government, a guy sniffing the Wi-Fi traffic at the airport, etc.) can snoop on your traffic. Further, certain exploits, like malicious Flash or JavaScript elements in your web browser, can reveal your true identity. This makes proxy servers unsuitable for serious tasks like preventing the operator of a malicious Wi-FI hotspot from stealing your data.

Finally, proxy server connections are configured on an application-by-application basis, not computer-wide. You don’t configure your entire computer to connect to the proxy–you configure your web browser, your BitTorrent client, or other proxy-compatible application. This is great if you just want a single application to connect to the proxy (like our aforementioned voting scheme) but not so great if you wish to redirect your entire internet connection.

The two most common proxy server protocols are HTTP and SOCKS.

HTTP Proxies

The oldest type of proxy server, HTTP proxies are designed expressly for web-based traffic. You plug the proxy server into your web browser’s configuration file (or use a browser extension if your browser doesn’t natively support proxies) and all your web traffic is routed through the remote proxy.

If you’re using an HTTP proxy to connect to any sort of sensitive service, like your email or bank, it is critical you use a browser with SSL enabled, and connect to a web site that supports SSL encryption. As we noted above, proxies do not encrypt any traffic, so the only encryption you get when using them is the encryption you provide yourself.

The advantages of proxy in read cube

Often times, schools and other institutions will have a proxy address which allows for users to access paid content from publishers while off campus. This means that no matter where you are – on campus or off – you can access content that your institution has the privileges to.

With ReadCube, you are able to connect the program directly to your proxy which will enable you to download that content directly into your ReadCube library.

There are two ways to connect your proxy to ReadCube:

The first is with EZProxy. If your institution has an EZProxy address, it’s likely that we already have your address on file. To check, head into the preferences of the app and into institutional affiliation. From there, you’ll see a drop down menu of the institutions we currently have on file:

Once you successfully log in, that’s it! You’re ready to go.

If we don’t have your EZProxy on file (or the one we do have is no longer active) please reach out to us at ReadCube Support.

If your institution does not use an EZProxy but rather a web based proxy (with a port number) you can still connect that proxy with ReadCube. To do this, head into preferences of the app, into institutional affiliation and make sure that all boxes are clear:

Once that’s done, launch the default browser of your operating system – for Windows this is Internet Explorer and for OS X this is Safari. You must configure your proxy from within these respective browsers even if you never personally use them as this is where ReadCube will look for proxy settings.

For more information on how to configure your proxy from within Internet Explorer, head here. And for Safari, here.

Once that’s done, launch ReadCube, authenticate with your credentials and you’re all set!

Know more about proxy server

A proxy server is a computer that offers a computer network service to allow clients to make indirect network connections to other network services. A client connects to the proxy server, then requests a connection, file, or other resource available on a different server. The proxy provides the resource either by connecting to the specified server or by serving it from a cache. In some cases, the proxy may alter the client’s request or the server’s response for various purposes.

Web proxies

A common proxy application is a caching Web proxy. This provides a nearby cache of Web pages and files available on remote Web servers, allowing local network clients to access them more quickly or reliably.

When it receives a request for a Web resource (specified by a URL), a caching proxy looks for the resulting URL in its local cache. If found, it returns the document immediately. Otherwise it fetches it from the remote server, returns it to the requester and saves a copy in the cache. The cache usually uses an expiry algorithm to remove documents from the cache, according to their age, size, and access history. Two simple cache algorithms are Least Recently Used (LRU) and Least Frequently Used (LFU). LRU removes the least-recently used documents, and LFU removes the least-frequently used documents.

Web proxies can also filter the content of Web pages served. Some censorware applications – which attempt to block offensive Web content – are implemented as Web proxies. Other web proxies reformat web pages for a specific purpose or audience; for example, Skweezer reformats web pages for cell phones and PDAs. Network operators can also deploy proxies to intercept computer viruses and other hostile content served from remote Web pages.

A special case of web proxies are “CGI proxies.” These are web sites which allow a user to access a site through them. They generally use PHP or CGI to implement the proxying functionality. CGI proxies are frequently used to gain access to web sites blocked by corporate or school proxies. Since they also hide the user’s own IP address from the web sites they access through the proxy, they are sometimes also used to gain a degree of anonymity.

You may see references to four different types of proxy servers:

Transparent Proxy

This type of proxy server identifies itself as a proxy server and also makes the original IP address available through the http headers. These are generally used for their ability to cache websites and do not effectively provide any anonymity to those who use them. However, the use of a transparent proxy will get you around simple IP bans. They are transparent in the terms that your IP address is exposed, not transparent in the terms that you do not know that you are using it (your system is not specifically configured to use it.)

Anonymous Proxy

This type of proxy server identifies itself as a proxy server, but does not make the original IP address available. This type of proxy server is detectable, but provides reasonable anonymity for most users.

Distorting Proxy

This type of proxy server identifies itself as a proxy server, but make an incorrect original IP address available through the http headers.

High Anonymity Proxy

This type of proxy server does not identify itself as a proxy server and does not make available the original IP address.

A Clinical Vignette By Proxy Tips

A 6-year-old boy was seen in a physician’s office for possible pneumonia. According to his mother, the child had been coughing and wheezing for the past 6 days. In addition, the mother stated that the child had a temperature of 103.9°F (39.9°C), decreased oral intake for the last 3 days, and decreased urine output for 2 days. The child had been treated with home albuterol nebulizers and antibiotics for 3 days. Over the last 24 hours, the child developed nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. A sibling in the house had been diagnosed with bronchitis.

The child’s past medical history included neurofibromatosis, asthma, seizure disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and pneumonia. The child had a prior workup that showed negative results for hyperglycemia. Current medications included methylphenidate, 20 mg twice per day; the albuterol nebulizer treatments; and amoxicillin, 250 mg 3 times per day. He had no known drug allergies.

Family history was positive for a mother with neurofibromatosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. There was also a family history of asthma. The child lived with his parents and 1 sister. There were no smokers in the household, but there was an inside dog. They had central heat, and the boy’s immunizations were current.

Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-developed, lethargic, and ill-appearing boy who was uncooperative and somnolent during the initial examination. His temperature was 96.5°F (35.8°C), pulse rate was 129 beats per minute, blood pressure was 116/56 mm Hg, and respiratory rate was 28. His eyes had a disconjugate gaze, but the remainder of the HEENT examination was normal. Results of cardiovascular examination were normal, and his lungs were clear to auscultation with no wheezing noted. Although the neurologic examination was difficult to assess secondary to the child’s lethargy, he did move all extremities. His skin showed multiple café-au-lait areas and was extremely diaphoretic.

Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a white blood cell count of 16,200/mL (normal range, 3500–10,000/mL), plasma sodium level of 140 mmol/L (normal range, 135–145 mmol/L), plasma chloride level of 106 mmol/L (normal range, 98–107 mmol/L), plasma potassium level of 2.3 mmol/L (normal range, 3.5–5.0 mmol/L), plasma carbon dioxide level of 20 mmol/L (normal range, 22–28 mmol/L), normal serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and a plasma glucose level of 31 mg/dL (normal range, 60–110 mg/dL). Owing to mental status concerns, a computed tomography scan of the head was performed with normal results. The child was admitted for further evaluation.

Following multiple injections of intravenous (i.v.) glucose during the first 3 hours after admission, the child’s blood sugar rose appropriately, only to fall again shortly after the physician left the room. The patient’s blood sugar level then normalized for the next 48 hours. On day 3, the child’s mother was informed that administration of i.v. glucose was being discontinued. That night, the child’s blood sugar level dropped into the high 40s despite repeated attempts to treat with i.v. solutions. Curiously, once the day shift started, the child’s blood sugar level again normalized.

Very early the next morning, the child’s blood sugar level once again dropped, this time into the 30s, with poor response to appropriate measures. Growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, C peptide, and lactate levels were measured. The child’s blood sugar level continued to fluctuate despite aggressive management. Of interest is that at one time during this episode, the i.v. tubing was noted to be leaking. Upon inspection, the tubing had a hole that looked like it was created by a needle.

Once the blood sugar level normalized again, dextrose was removed from the i.v. solution. Without the mother’s knowledge, however, the i.v. bag was intentionally mislabeled to suggest ongoing dextrose administration. The child’s subsequent blood sugar levels remained normal.

Suspicions that the mother was injecting some of her insulin into the child’s i.v. access were triggered by the fact that her son’s abnormally low blood sugar levels occurred only when she was in the room. The mother also voiced concern that her child was becoming a diabetic just like her, and the child knew how to perform his own finger prick for glucose monitoring. Behavioral aberrations on the part of the mother were also noted, as evidenced by her remaining curled up in a fetal position on the parent’s bed during her child’s most severe hypoglycemic episode.

On the fifth day of admission, the mother was removed from the room and the child’s blood sugar level subsequently remained normal. Laboratory results received that day from analysis of blood drawn on day 3 showed an insulin level of 9776 µU/mL (normal range, 5–25 µU/mL) and a C peptide level of 0.5 ng/mL (normal range, 0.8–4.0 ng/mL). The mother subsequently expressed concern about her child’s blood sugar level and confessed to covert administration of insulin. The child was removed from the mother’s custody and made a full recovery.